Last Reviewed: April 2017
Important signs to watch for if you are pregnant
- Bad cramps or stomach pains that don't go away.
- Bleeding or a trickle or gush of fluid from your vagina.
- Lower back pain/pressure or change in lower back pain.
- A feeling that the baby is pushing down.
- Contractions or change in the strength or number of them.
- An increase in the amount of vaginal discharge.
- Fever, chills, dizziness, vomiting or a bad headache.
- Blurry vision or spots before your eyes.
- Sudden or severe swelling of your feet, hand or face.
- A significant change in your baby's movements.
Go to a hospital right away and contact your doctor/midwife if you have any of these symptoms.
Adapted with permission from:
Best Start: Ontario's Maternal Newborn and Early Child Development Resource Centre
Eating healthy to have a healthy baby
Every woman wants to have a healthy baby. Eating healthy is important when you are pregnant. Eating a variety of foods from Canada's Food Guide will help you get most of the vitamins, minerals and nutrients you need for you and for your baby. A prenatal vitamin/mineral supplement is recommended when you are pregnant to make sure you are getting enough vitamins and minerals.
Healthy eating while you are pregnant can:
- give your baby the nutrition he needs to be healthy
- help you gain a healthy amount of weight
- help you and your family develop healthy eating habits for life
- reduce your chance of developing health problems like high blood pressure or low iron in your blood
How much should I eat?
You will need extra calories during your pregnancy so that you have a healthy weight gain. How much more? In the first 3 months of pregnancy, most women do not gain much weight so you may only need to eat more in the second and third trimester. On average, you need to eat an extra 2-3 servings per day from any of the food groups from Canada's Food Guide.
You can get 2-3 extra servings each day by adding healthy snacks to your day or by adding extra servings to your meals. For example, two extra servings may be eating a fruit for snack and an extra glass of milk with supper.
What to eat
To make sure you are getting all the nutrients you need to have a healthy baby, choose a variety of foods from Canada's Food Guide and follow its recommendations.
* Remember that pregnant (2nd & 3rd trimester) and breastfeeding women need an extra 2-3 servings from any of the food groups from Canada’s Food Guide.
Canada's Food Guide recommends that you eat the following foods every day (for women 19-50 years of age):
7-8 Servings of Vegetables and Fruit
Vegetables and Fruit provide fibre, vitamins and minerals and energy. Try vegetables and fruit of different colours to get great nutrition. You should eat at least one dark green and one orange vegetable or fruit each day. Have vegetables and fruit more often than juice.
6-7 Serving of Grain Products
Grain Products are a great source of vitamins (especially B vitamins), minerals, fibre and energy. Bread, rice, naan, bagels and pasta are all part of the Grain Products food group. Choose whole grain varieties that are lower in fat, sugar and salt. Try to have at least half of your daily grain intake come from whole grains.
2 Servings of Milk and Alternatives
The Milk and Alternatives food group can provide calcium, vitamin D, protein and other nutrients. To get enough vitamin D, everyone (over two years of age) needs to drink 2 cups (500 mL) of milk every day. Choose lower-fat varieties like skim, 1% or 2% milk or lower-fat yogurt (under 2% M.F.) and cheese. If you do not drink milk, choose fortified soy beverages, rice beverage or calcium-fortified orange juice (pasteurized). Some fortified beverages contain calcium but not vitamin D; check the label!
* Note: teenage girls (14 – 18 years of age) need 3-4 servings of Milk and alternatives everyday
2 Servings of Meat and Alternatives
The Meat and Alternatives food group can provide protein, iron, energy, minerals and vitamins. Choose lean lower fat meats and meat alternatives—dried peas, beans, tofu and lentils—made with little or no added fat or salt. Prepare and cook Meat and Alternatives with little or no added fat or salt. This food group can also provide a very good source of fibre if you choose legumes like dried peas, beans and lentils, nuts and seeds.
Fish has omega-3 fatty acids which can help your baby’s brain, visual and nerve development. Choose at least two servings of fish per week. Choose fish that are low in mercury such as salmon, sole or trout.
For more information on healthy fish choices, visit Eat Fish for Health or call:
Region of Peel-Public Health
Monday to Friday 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
Caledon residents call free of charge at 905-584-2216
Important nutrients to have a healthy baby
Some nutrients are very important when you are pregnant like iron, folic acid, calcium, vitamin D and omega 3 fatty acids. It is sometimes hard to get enough of these nutrients from your diet. An extra vitamin/mineral supplement may be recommended by your doctor or dietitian.
Folic acid, also known as folate or folacin, is a B vitamin that is needed during pregnancy to help make blood. Folic acid is very important in the first few weeks of pregnancy because that is when the baby’s spine, skull and brain develop. It can help prevent neural-tube defects, like spina bifida, which are birth defects that affect the development of the spine and brain.
It is recommended that all women who could become pregnant take a multivitamin containing 0.4mg (400 microgram) of folic acid. Once you know that you are pregnant, you can replace your multivitamin with a prenatal vitamin containing 0.4 mg of folic acid and 16-20 mg iron.
Most prenatal vitamins contain up to 1 mg of folic acid, which is a safe upper level for women 19 years of age and older. Women under 19 years of age need to consult their health care provider who can assist them in choosing prenatal vitamins that do not put them at risk.
Do not increase your dose of folic acid or take more than 1 prenatal vitamin per day without consulting your health care provider.
Vegetables, fruit and fortified cereals are the best sources of folic acid. Food like lentils, beans, spinach, orange juice, broccoli, peas and Brussels sprouts are excellent sources of folic acid. However, even when you eat the best sources of folic acid it is difficult to get enough from food alone. Taking a prenatal vitamin that contains 0.4mg of folic acid and 16-20 mg iron every day and following Canada's Food Guide will ensure that you are getting the nutrients you need to have a healthy baby.
To get more information on the importance of folic acid and your health before pregnancy and your baby:
Iron is important to make healthy blood for you and your baby. When you are pregnant, your body needs to make more blood, almost double, for your body, your growing baby and placenta. During your pregnancy your blood iron may become low (anemia). Low iron in the blood can cause you to feel tired, have pale skin, and be more likely to catch colds and infections. Iron, in the form of hemoglobin, carries oxygen to your body’s cells and gives you more energy. Iron deficiency can affect brain development, behaviour and general health of children.
The following chart outlines daily iron requirements, otherwise called the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI):
||Recommended Amount of Iron (mg)/day
|Pregnant Women (adults and teens):
Male 19 years and over
Female 19-50 years
Female over 50 years
Male 9-13 years
Male 14-18 years
Female 9-13 years
Female 14-18 years
During pregnancy, it is hard to get enough iron from food. Taking a prenatal vitamin can help you make sure you get the iron you and your baby need. Your prenatal multivitamin should contain 16 – 20 mg of Iron (Health Canada, 2009).
There are two types of iron – heme iron (animal sources like meat, fish and poultry) and non-heme iron (foods like eggs, whole grains, dark green vegetables, nuts, seeds and legumes). Your body absorbs heme iron better than non-heme iron.
Sources of heme iron:
*note - liver is high in iron but is not included because one Food Guide Serving of liver (75g) contains more vitamin A than is safe during pregnancy.
- red meat - beef, pork, lamb, veal
- turkey and chicken
- fish and seafood
Sources of non-heme iron:
- breakfast cereal (fortified with iron)
- breads and pasta (whole grain and enriched)
- beans, lentils, dried peas
- seeds and nuts
- dark leafy green vegetables
- dried fruit
How to get the most from the iron in your food
You can help your body absorb iron at each meal by:
- eating foods rich in vitamin C (found in foods like kiwi, citrus fruit or juice, cantaloupe, strawberries, broccoli) with your iron containing foods
- eating some meat, fish or poultry (foods with heme iron) with non-heme iron foods
- avoiding coffee or tea with your meals - they contain tannins that reduce non-heme iron absorption
*Sources: Merck Manual,NIH,DRI (ION)
Your doctor/midwife may advise you take an iron supplement in addition to your prenatal vitamin if your iron levels are low. Take the iron supplement with meals or a glass of 100% juice (pasteurized) that is high in vitamin C. Avoid taking an iron supplement at the same time as a calcium or zinc supplement.
Calcium & Vitamin D
Calcium and vitamin D work together to build healthy bones and teeth for you and your baby. Vitamin D is needed for our bodies to absorb calcium.
Your baby gets the calcium it needs from your blood. Any extra calcium is stored in your bones to prepare your body for breastfeeding. If your body does not have enough calcium, then your bones may be affected and become thinner in the future.
Women (19–50 years old, even during pregnancy) need 1000mg of calcium per day. Teens (14–18 years old) need 1300 mg/day. The best sources are Milk and Alternatives fortified with vitamin D. Two cups of milk will provide enough calcium for you during pregnancy. Other sources like legumes, nuts, seeds and some dark green leafy vegetables also contain some calcium. Vitamin D helps calcium absorption, whereas, oxalic acid found in some vegetables like spinach, rhubarb, chard, lowers the absorption of calcium. Stress and caffeine intake also tend to decrease calcium absorption.
If you do not drink milk, then drink fortified beverages like goat’s milk, fortified orange juice, soy and/or rice beverages. Check the label to make sure the beverages have calcium and vitamin D added to them. Other sources of calcium are legumes, some vegetables and almonds.
The recommended daily intake of vitamin D for pregnant and non-pregnant women ages 14 – 50 years is 200 IU everyday. Vitamin D can be found in cow’s milk, some yogurts, fortified soy/rice beverages goat’s milk, fatty fish (i.e. salmon), egg yolk and margarine. Your body also makes Vitamin D when your skin is exposed to the sun. However, during the long winter days (November–March), we cannot produce vitamin D naturally from the sun. The use of sunscreens to prevent skin cancer also decreases the production of vitamin D.
Essential Fatty Acids
Certain types of fats, called essential fatty acids are necessary for you and your baby’s growth and development. There are two types: omega-3 and omega-6.
They are found in vegetable oils and soft margarines, nuts, seeds and fatty fish. Your body does not make these fats so you must get them from your food.
Include essential fatty acids in your diet by:
- Eating salmon for supper or a salmon sandwich for lunch
- Choosing salad dressing made from oils such as canola oil
- Using vegetable oils in cooking and baking
- Sprinkle nuts and seeds in your meals or yogurt
Certain types of omega-3 fatty acids, called DHA and EPA, are important for healthy development of your baby’s eyes, brain and nervous system. The best source of DHA and EPA is fatty fish, mostly salmon and fish oils. Other sources are DHA-enriched eggs, DHA-enriched milk, DHA and EPA supplements. Before taking any supplements, check with your doctor or dietitian and buy from reputable stores. Also, check the expiry date.
Water and Other Fluid
It is important for you to drink plenty of water while you’re pregnant.
- carries nutrients to your body and to your growing baby
- takes away waste from your baby and from you
- keeps you cool
- helps prevent constipation
- helps to control swelling
Drink plenty of fluids every day, including water, milk, 100% juice (pasteurized) and soup. Drink water regularly and drink more in hot weather or when you are active.
Foods to avoid during pregnancy
During pregnancy, both you and your unborn baby are at an increased risk for food poisoning because of all the changes taking place in your body. Your immune system becomes weaker, which can make it more difficult to fight off infections. Also bacteria, viruses and parasites that cross the placenta can make your baby sick. (source: Health Canada)
Do not Eat:
- All milk products made from unpasteurized milk (e.g., unpasteurized cheese, yogurt)
- All pasteurized soft and semi-soft cheeses like Feta, Brie, Hispanic-style fresh cheeses (e.g., Queso Fresco, Queso Blanco, Queso Panela, Halloumi, etc.), goat cheese, sheep cheese, mould ripened cheese (e.g., Camembert), cheese with veins (e.g., blue veined cheese, Roquefort, Stilton, Gorgonzola, etc.) and paneer unless cooked or baked in dishes so cheese reaches a minimum internal temperature of 74°C (165°F) for at least 15 seconds during cooking.
- Non-dried deli meats, including roast beef, turkey breast and ham, unless heated until steaming hot or cooked in dishes to an internal temperature of 74°C (165°F).
- Hot dogs right from the package. The liquid in the package may contain more Listeria than the hot dogs themselves. Make sure to wash your hands well after handling hot dogs and cook hot dogs until steaming hot 74°C (165°F).
- Refrigerated pâté and meat spreads.
- Refrigerated smoked seafood and fish (e.g., smoked salmon), unless fully cooked to a safe internal temperature, such as in a casserole.
- Raw or undercooked meat, poultry, fish and shellfish (e.g., Carpaccio, steak tartar, oysters, clams, sushi).
- All foods made with raw or lightly cooked eggs (e.g., home-made Caesar dressing).
- Raw sprouts, such as alfalfa, clover, radish and mung beans.
Do not Drink:
- All un-pasteurized juices and ciders, such as un-pasteurized apple cider.
- All un-pasteurized milk and products made with un-pasteurized or raw milk.
Select Safer Alternatives:
- Hard pasteurized cheese (e.g., Cheddar, Colby, Monterey Jack, Parmesan, etc.) and pasteurized processed cheese products (e.g. cream cheese, cottage cheese, cheese slices).
- Pasteurized milk and dairy products (e.g., yogurt, kefir)
- Canned pâtés and meat spreads that don’t need to be refrigerated until opened, except for liver* pâtés and spreads
- Canned smoked fish and seafood products that don’t need to be refrigerated until opened.
- Fish and seafood cooked to a safe internal temperature of 74°C (165°F).
- Oysters, clams, and mussels cooked until the shell has opened.
- Sprouts cooked until steaming hot 74°C (165°F) or warmer.
*Note - one Food Guide Serving of liver (75g) contains more vitamin A than is safe during pregnancy
Handle and prepare your food safely:
- Make sure you wash your hands with warm water and soap before and after handling food.
- Wash fresh fruits and vegetables with clean, safe running water.
- Fruits and vegetables that are usually peeled or cut, like melons, oranges and cucumbers also need to be washed with clean safe water before being cut or peeled.
- Do not soak fruits and vegetables in a sink full of water as the sink can harbor bacteria.
- Use one cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one for raw meat.
- Wash cutting boards and countertops with hot soapy water after preparing food, then sanitize and rinse.
- Use a thermometer to measure the internal temperature of cooked foods.
- Keep hot foods at or above 60°C (140°F).
- Bacteria can grow quickly in the danger zone between 4°C to 60°C (40°F to 140°F).
For more Information:
For more information about food safety and pregnancy:
Also during your pregnancy it is best for you and your baby to avoid
- Low-nutritious and high-fat foods: Foods like chips, candies, cookies, pop, and energy drinks provide you with calories, but not the nutrients you and your baby need. It can also lead to an unhealthy weight gain and displace the nutritious food you and your baby need.
- Alcohol: There is no safe level of alcohol during pregnancy, so avoid all alcoholic drinks.
For more information:
Be Safe: Have an Alcohol-Free Pregnancy
- Caffeine: Caffeine is found in sources including coffee, tea, soft drinks, energy drinks and chocolate.
- Limit caffeine consumption from all sources.
For more information go to Caffeine and Pregnancy
- Herbal Teas: Some herbal teas are not recommended during pregnancy. For a list of herbal teas considered safe visit Herbal Teas and Supplements
The recommended amount of weight gain for a healthy baby depends on your weight before pregnancy. Your weight gain supports:
- The growth of the fetus
- The growth of placenta
- The production of amniotic fluid
- The increase in mom's blood, protein, fluids and fat stores and size of uterus and breasts.
A healthy weight gain can help make a full-term, healthy baby weighing 6.8 to 7.9 pounds (3.1 to 3.6 kg). Most women will need to gain between 25-35 pounds, some a little more, some a little less. Recommendations for weight gain can be different from woman to woman depending on her pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI is a measure that relates weight to height and risk of health problems.
Women who gain too much weight may have health problems during pregnancy and are at risk for a having baby being born preterm or larger than normal. Women who gain too little weight may have a low birth weight baby, which can affect baby’s health. Ideally, the next pregnancy should happen once mom’s weight has gone back to a normal and her nutritional status is healthy.
Recommended weight gain*
Pre-pregnancy BMI category
Recommended range of total weight gain
12.2-18 kg (28-40 lbs)
11.5-16 kg (25-35 lbs)
7-11.5 kg (15-25 lbs)
5-9 kg (11-20 lbs)
* Canadian Gestational Weight Gain Recommendations (Health Canada 2009)
For more information on weight gain:
Healthy Weight Gain during Pregnancy
For more information go to:
Region of Peel — Public Health
905-799-7700 Monday to Friday 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
Caledon residents call free of charge at 905-584-2216
To speak with a Public Health Nurse