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School Health Reference Guide


The Region of Peel School Health Reference Guide is a supplementary resource to relevant Peel and Dufferin-Peel school board policies. Refer to school board policy first if you have questions or concerns.

Childhood Diseases and Illnesses

Typhoid Fever/Paratyphoid Fever
  • Typhoid/Paratyphoid Fever is bacterial illness caused by Salmonella typhi/paratyphi.
  • Spread by food, water or objects that have been contaminated with the feces or urine of a person with Salmonella typhi/paratyphi.
  • It can also be transmitted person-to-person by the fecal-oral route (when fecal particles from one person enter the mouth of another person). This can happen if the ill person does not wash their hands after a bowel movement. The bacteria on the hands can be transmitted to surfaces other people touch.
  • Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi infection is restricted to humans.
  • Symptoms include: fever, headache, malaise, anorexia, rose spotting on the trunk, diarrhea and/or constipation.
  • Symptoms of Typhoid Fever can develop three to over 60 days from the time of exposure to the bacteria; however the usual range is eight to 14 days.
  • Paratyphoid fever is a milder form of the disease. The usual time between exposure to the bacteria and development of symptoms of Paratyphoid Fever is one to 10 days.
  • While uncommon in Canada, Typhoid/Paratyphoid Fever is highly endemic in developing countries in Africa, Asia (especially Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent) and Central and South America.
Instructions for Schools
  • Good hand hygiene will prevent transmission of the disease. Students and staff should be practicing good hygiene at all times, not just when another student or staff member is ill.
  • It is also advised that students and staff not share home prepared foods they have for lunches etc. Food contaminated with bacteria can transmit the disease.
  • If a student is diagnosed with Typhoid Fever or Paratyphoid Fever it is not likely they will be attending school because of the severity of the illness.
  • Remember to protect the confidentiality of the student by not disclosing a diagnosis to concern parents and/or colleagues.
  • The school must NOT send letters home to parents indicating a student with Typhoid Fever is in attendance. Such letters would be alarming and cause needless stress for families. Also, the accuracy of the information given by the school may not be substantiated. Many times physicians will give a clinical diagnosis of Typhoid Fever without ever having isolated the bacteria in the stool or blood.
  • If there is a concern the school may consider requesting a doctor’s note prior to the student’s return to school.
Role of Peel Public Health:
  • A public health inspector will contact the parents of the student to discuss information related to the nature of the disease, the mode of transmission and prevention. Peel Public Health does not exclude a student reported with Typhoid/Paratyphoid Fever from the school.
For more information on communicable disease resources and programs,
call Peel Public Health at 905-799-7700.(In Caledon, call 905-584-2216.)


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Revised: Thursday January 14 2016