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about peel infant feeding survey (PIFS) data)

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  • For each data source, information about data collection and analytical methods, limitations, the citation and additional resources can be found on the Data Sources and Methods page.

The Peel Infant Feeding Survey (PIFS) is an annual cross-sectional survey designed to support the collection, analysis, and dissemination of information regarding infant feeding practices of Peel mothers until their infant is between six and eight months of age.


Original Source: Region of Peel – Public Health.
Cite as: Peel Infant Feeding Survey, 2015-2016, Region of Peel – Public Health.


Data Collection Methods

  • The survey is conducted annually and has been running since 2015. The PIFS collects data from mothers on infant feeding practices in hospital and at home, breastfeeding duration, any and exclusive breastfeeding, and introduction of other liquids and solids.
  • Prior to PIFS, the Region of Peel – Public Health had other tools to collect data on infant feeding practices. In 1999/2000, 2004/2005, and 2009/2010 three independent breastfeeding surveys were implemented. Between 2012 and 2013, the Infant Feeding Surveillance System collected infant feeding data.
  • The sampling frame for PIFS is a list of mothers living in Peel who consented to provide information to the Healthy Babies Healthy Children (HBHC) program. This list is obtained from the Integrated Services for Children Information system (ISCIS).
  • All teen mothers (15 to 19 years) and a random sample of adult mothers (20+ years) who are between 26 and 33 weeks (approximately six to eight months) postpartum at the time of the survey are eligible for participation.

Weighting and Release Guidelines

  • Data have been weighted by age categories where sufficient sampling units were available.
  • For data on the Health Status Data website, release guidelines based on the Coefficient of Variation (CV) were used. These guidelines are recommended by Statistics Canada:
    • CV between 0 and 16.5: Releasable
    • CV between 16.6 and 33.3: Use with caution. In this scenario, the letter ‘a’ is presented within the data table, with a footnote stating ‘Use estimate with caution’
    • CV greater than 33.3: Not releasable. In this scenario, the acronym ‘NR’ is presented in the data table, with a footnote stating ‘Not releasable due to small numbers’
  • Additionally, release guidelines indicate that there should be at least 10 observations in the numerator and 30 observations in the denominator to release the data.

Data Analysis Methods

  • 95% confidence intervals are presented in the data tables. The confidence interval presents a lower and upper range of values, which contains the true value of the percentage for the whole population 95% of the time, or 19 times out of 20.
  • Missing data were included in the calculation of the percentages in the tables where the proportion of missing among respondents was 5% or greater. Missing data were excluded from the calculations where the proportion of missing was less than 5%.


  • The sampling frame for PIFS does not include all births in the Region of Peel because not all women consent to have their data collected at the time of birth. It is possible that the 10% of births not captured are systematically different than the births that are included in the database at birth.
  • There was not a gold standard for asking exclusivity/duration questions at the time of survey development. Questions were developed in-house using the best available information. Similar questions were used in the survey developed by the Provincial Infant Feeding Surveillance Workgroup’s Locally Driven Collaborative Project (LDCP).
  • Data from PIFS should not be compared with historical surveys, as questions have changed over time.
  • There was insufficient sample size to represent Peel teen mothers.


  • For more detailed information about PIFS, see the PIFS reports available here under Children, Youth and Parents

Last updated: February 12, 2019

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