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  • For each data source, information about data collection and analytical methods, limitations, the citation and additional resources can be found on the Data Sources and Methods page.

GENERAL INFORMATION

  • The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is used to classify diseases and other health problems for health and vital records including death certificates, hospital records and emergency department visit records.
  • Prior to the implementation of the currently used International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision (ICD-9) was used. In Ontario, ICD-10 was implemented on January 1, 2000 for death data and on April 1, 2001 for hospitalization data. Emergency department visit data has used ICD-10 since its inception.
  • ICD-10 is more detailed than ICD-9 with about 8,000 categories compared to approximately 5,000 in ICD-9.
  • The ICD-9 contained numeric codes categorized into 17 chapters plus two supplementary classifications: the Supplementary Classification of External Causes of Injury and Poisoning (E codes) and the Supplementary Classification of Factors Influencing Health Status and Contact with Health Services (V codes).
  • In Canada, an enhanced version of the ICD-10 is maintained by the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Canada, Version 10 (ICD-10-CA) is updated periodically (i.e., every two to three years) to ensure it remains relevant in the Canadian context. The ICD-10-CA includes the addition of fifth and sixth characters to provide added specificity. ICD-10-CA also includes two additional chapters (related to the morphology of neoplasm and provisional codes for research and temporary assignment). On rare occasions codes in ICD-10 and ICD-10-CA differ slightly (e.g., HIV where ICD-10 uses codes B20-B24 whereas in ICD-10-CA only B24 is used and B20-B23 do not appear at all).
  • The ICD-10-CA contains alphanumeric codes categorized into 21 chapters, and includes chapters related to external cause codes (V through Y codes) and health services codes (Z codes) as a part of the core classification.
  • Significant discontinuities can be found in cause of death trends from the last year of ICD-9 use to the first year of ICD-10 use. In particular, decreases should be expected in deaths due to tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, lung cancer, acute myocardial infarction, and large decreases in pneumonia and accidental falls. Increases should be expected in HIV, septicaemia, breast and prostate cancers, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular disease, alcoholic liver disease, renal failure, and Alzheimer's disease. Other areas such as suicide, colon cancer and SIDS show little change. For complete details see Statistics Canada's "Comparability of ICD-10 and ICD-9 for Mortality Statistics in Canada".1
  • ICD-10-CA codes used for analyses on the Health Status Data website are grouped as follows:
Diagnosis/Cause ICD-10-CA
Vaccine preventable diseases (excluding viral hepatitis) A33-A37, A80, B01, B05-B06, B26
Intestinal infectious diseases A00-A09
Tuberculosis A15-A19
Vector-borne diseases and rabies A20, A44, A75-A79, A82-A84, A85.2, A92-A97, A98.0-A98.2, B50-B57
Meningitis A39, A87, G00-G03
Septicemia A40-A41
Viral hepatitis B15-B19
HIV/AIDS B24
Cancer of the lip, oral cavity and pharynx C00-C14
Cancer of the esophagus C15
Cancer of the stomach C16
Cancer of the colon, rectum and anus C18-C21, C26.0
Cancer of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts C22
Cancer of the gallbladder and other and unspecified parts of the biliary tract C23-C24
Pancreatic cancer C25
Laryngeal cancer C32
Bronchus and lung cancer C34
Cancer of the bone and articular cartilage C40-C41
Malignant melanoma of the skin C43
Cancer of mesothelial and soft tissue C45-C49
Breast cancer C50
Cervical cancer C53
Uterine cancer C54-C55
Ovarian cancer C56
Prostate cancer C61
Testicular cancer C62
Cancer of the kidney and renal pelvis C64-C65
Bladder cancer C67
Cancer of the meninges, brain and other parts of central nervous system C70-C72
Thyroid cancer C73
Lymphoma C81-C89
Myeloma C90.0, C90.2-C90.3
Leukemia C90.1, C91-C95
Benign, in situ and cancers of uncertain or unknown behaviour D00-D48
Nutritional anemias D50-D53
Non-nutritional anemias D55-D64
Disorders of thyroid gland E00-E07
Diabetes Mellitus E10-E14
Other disorders of glucose regulation and pancreatic internal secretion E15-E16
Disorders of other endocrine glands E20-E35
Malnutrition E40-E46
Nutritional deficiencies E50-E64
Obesity and other hyperalimentation E65-E68
Metabolic disorders E70-E90
Dementia and Alzheimer's disease F00-F01, F03, G30
Dementia due to other diseases F02
Other organic mental disorders F04-F09
Mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use F10-F19
Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders F20-F29
Mood (affective disorders) F30-F39
Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders F40-F48
Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors F50-F59
Disorders of adult personality and behaviour F60-F69
Mental retardation F70-F79
Disorders of psychological development F80-F89
Behavioural and emotional disorders in childhood and adolescence F90-F98
Other unspecified mental disorder F99
Parkinson’s disease G20-G21
Epilepsy and status epilepticus G40-G41
Diseases of the eye and adnexa H00-H59
Diseases of the ear and mastoid process H60-H95
Acute rheumatic fever I00-I02
Chronic rheumatic heart disease I05-I09
Hypertensive disease I10-I15
Ischemic heart disease I20-I25
Nonrheumatic valve disorders I34-I38
Cardiomyopathy I42
Cardiac arrest I46
Cardiac arrythmias I47-I49
Heart failure I50-I51
Cerebrovascular disease I60-I69
Acute respiratory infections other than flu or pneumonia J00-J06, J20-J22
Influenza and pneumonia J09-J18
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) J40-J44, J47
Asthma J45-J46
Pulmonary oedema J80-J84
Respiratory failure J96
Diseases of the oral cavity K00-K14
Diseases of oesophagus K20-K31
Appendicitis, hernia and intestinal obstruction K35-K46, K56
Noninfective enteritis and colitis K50-K52
Cirrhosis and other diseases of the liver K70-K77
Cholelithiasis, cholecystitis and other diseases of the gallbladder K80-K82
Disorders of gallbladder, biliary tract and pancreas in diseases classified elsewhere K87
Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue L00-L99
Arthritis/Rheumatism M00, M02.3-M02.4, M02.8-M02.9, M05-M08, M10, M11.8-M11.9, M12-M13, M15-M19, M22-M25, M30-M35, M45-M48, M60-M62, M65-M67, M70-M72, M75-M79, M89.4
Diseases of the urinary system N00-N39
Diseases of the genital system N40-N99
Pregnancy with abortive outcome O00-O08
Eclampsia and other hypertensive disorders O10-O11, O13-O16
Complications of labour and delivery O60-O75
Complications related to the puerperium O85-O92
Birth trauma and obstetric causes P01-P03, P10-P15
Disorders related to length of gestation and fetal growth P05-P08
Infections specific to the perinatal period P35-P39
Haemorrhagic and haematological disorders of fetus and newborn P50-P61
Congenital malformations of the nervous system Q00-Q07
Congenital malformations of eye, ear, face and neck Q10-Q18
Congenital malformations of the circulatory system Q20-Q28
Congenital malformations of the respiratory system Q30-Q34
Cleft lip and cleft palate Q35-Q37
Other congenital malformations of the digestive system Q38-Q45
Congenital malformations of the genital organs Q50-Q56
Congenital malformations of the urinary system Q60-Q64
Congenital malformations and deformations of the musculoskeletal system Q65-Q79
Other congenital malformations  Q80-Q89
Chromosomal abnormalities not elsewhere categorized Q90-Q99
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes S00-T98 (emergency department visits and hospitalizations only)
External causes of morbidity and mortality V00-Y99 (deaths only)

Cause of Injury ICD-10-CA
Pedestrian accident V01-V06, V09
Cycling accident V10-V19
Motor vehicle collision V20-V79, V83-V86, Y85.0
Other or unknown types of land transport accidents V80-V82, V87-V89
Water transport accidents (excluding drowning) V91, V93-V94
Falls (all) W00-W19, Y30
Accidental falls W00-W19
Exposure to inanimate and animate mechanical forces   W20-W46, W49-W60, W64, Y22-Y25, Y28-Y29
All drowning/submersion W65-W70, W73-W74, V90, V92, Y21
Suffocation including choking W75-W81, W83-W84, Y20
Burns X00-X06, X08-X19, Y26-Y27
Exposure to forces of nature, venomous animals and plants X20-X39
All poisoning X40-X49, Y10-Y19
Accidental poisoning X40-X49
Overexertion, travel and privation X50-X54, X57
Suicide (self-harm) X60-X84, Y87.0
Assault X85-X99, Y00-Y09, Y87.1
Legal intervention and operations of war Y35-Y36, Y89.0-Y89.1
Complications of medical and surgical care (including sequelae) Y40-Y66, Y69-Y84, Y88

REFERENCES AND RESOURCES

  1. Statistics Canada. Comparability of ICD-10 and ICD-9 for Mortality Statistics in Canada. Ottawa: Ministry of Industry, 2005. Catalogue no. 84-548-XIE.
  2. Anderson RN, Miniño AM, Hoyert DL, Rosenberg, HM. Comparability of Cause of Death Between ICD-9 and ICD-10: Preliminary Estimates. National Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 18, 2001.
  3. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Canadian Coding Standards For ICD-10-CA and CCI. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2003.
  4. World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases Online Version
Last updated: February 12, 2019

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